Here we will cover the basics on optimal hardware setup for imaging Solar System Objects.
A Guide to DSLR Planetary Imaging by Jerry Lodriguss  One of the best resources for Astrophotography.
TimeAndDate.com: Distance, Brightness and Size of Planets  This link gives good information on when the planets are up, and the size of the planets at the given date.
 High Resolution Lunar and Planetary Imaging Hints and Tricks
Full Disk Lunar Imaging Tutorial  JamesF
Reference: A Guide to DSLR Planetary Imaging: Planetary Rotation and Detail Smearing
When using lucky Imaging, time is limited due to the fact the object may be rotating. Here is a summary of ruleofthumb imaging time limits for video capture assuming 0.5 arcseconds of detail smearing allowance:
Object 
Max Time 
Sunspots 
3 minutes 
Jupiter 
2 minutes 
Saturn 
5 minutes 
Mars 
4 minutes 
Moon 
5 minutes 
Reference: A Guide to DSLR Planetary Imaging: Sampling
First we need to determine the Optimal Magnification for our hardware. We want to get the most detail possible given the seeing conditions, scope and camera capabilities This is determined by the following variables:
Imaging Scope Focal Ratio (Sfr)
Imaging System Focal Ratio (Ifr)
Camera pixel Size (Cps)
Camera Sensor Dimensions
Seeing Conditions  Scaled here as 57, where 5 is normal, 7 is exceptional
We start with the assumption that the Optimal Focal Ratio (Ofr) of the imaging system should be 57 times the camera pixel size based on seeing conditions (5 for average, 7 for exceptional), so we will go with 6 time the pixel size in these calculations.
Ofr = 6Cps
Assuming our camera and our scope are not easily changed, we cant change those variables, what we can do is change the Imaging System Focal Ratio by adding a Barlow lens if necessary to try to get to the Optimal Focal Ratio (Ofr), or use Eyepiece Projection. Here we determine the appropriate Barlow Lens Magnification (Bx)
Bx = (57)Cps/Sfr
Here is what I have calculated for some hardware, where Barlow Magnification magnification is from good to excellent conditions (57):
Scope 
Focal Ratio (Sfr) 
Camera 
Pixel Size 
Sensor Dimensions (mm) 
Recommended Barlow Magnification 
Celestron C11 HD 
Sfr = 10 
QHY128c 
Cps = 5.97 um 
36.03 x 24.05 
Bx = 3.0x  4.2x 
Celestron C11 HD 
Sfr = 10 
ZWO 174MM Mini 
Cps = 5.86 um 
11.3 x 7.1 
Bx = 2.9x  4.1x 


ZWO ASI120MCS $134 ZWO AZI120MMS $161 
Cps = 3.75 um 
4.8 x 3.6 
Bx = 1.9x  2.6x 
Questar 3.5" 
Sfr = 14.4 
QHY 128c 
Cps = 5.97 um 
36.03 x 24.05 
Bx = 2.1x  2.9x 
Celestron C8 
Sfr = 10 
Cps = 3.75 um 
8.4 x 8.4 
Bx = 1.8x  2.6x  
Meade ETX 125 
Sfr = 15 
ZWO ASI120MCS $134 ZWO AZI120MMS $161 
Cps = 3.75 um 
4.8 x 3.6

Bx = 1.25x  1.75x 
References
A Guide to DSLR Planetary Imaging: Planetary Rotation and Detail Smearing
Astronomy Tools: Field of View Calculator
Now that we know the Optimal Magnification and have determined what Barlow lens we need, we need to determine if the image will fit on our sensor, and what wiggle room we have, because as we are capturing the image, things tend to drift. First consideration is the size of the object you are imaging. While the sun and moon stay the same size throughout the year, the planets vary based on how close they are to the earth.
Apparent Size of common objects in the solar system

Field of View
Configuration 
F Ratio 
Resolution 
Field of View (deg)

Dawes Limit 
Ideal Targets 
Simulated Images 
 C11  0.7 Reducer  QHY128c  
7.0 
0.63" x 0.63" 
1.05 x 0.7 
0.41" 
Moon, Sun 

C11  4x Barlow  Canon 60D  
40 
0.08" x 0.08" 
0.11 x 0.08 
0.41" 
Planets, Sunspots 

C11  2x Barlow  ZWO 174MM  
20 
0.22" x 0.22" 
0.12 x 0.07 
0.41" 
Planets, Sunspots 

C11  4x Barlow  ZWO 174MM 

40 
0.11" x 0.11" 
0.06 x 0.04 
0.41" 
Planets, Sunspots 

C11  2x Barlow  ZWO 120MM  
20 
0.14" x 0.14" 
0.05 x 0.04 
0.41" 
Planets, Sunspots 

C11  4x Barlow  ZWO 120MM  
40 
0.07" x 0.07" 
0.02 x 0.02 
0.41" 
Planets, Sunspots 
